In 2005, a whole cranium of a long-extinct human ancestor was found at the archaeological site of Dmanisi, a small town in southern Georgia, Europe. The skull belonged to an ancient hominid that lived 1.85 million years ago!
The archeological artifact known as Skull 5 or D4500 has a long face, enormous teeth, and a small braincase. It is entirely whole. It was one of five prehistoric hominin skulls found in Dmanisi that caused scientists to reevaluate the theory of early human evolution.
The researchers note that the findings offer the first proof that early Homo comprised of adults with tiny brains but body mass, stature, and limb proportions above the lower range limit of modern variation.
Located in the Mashavera river valley in Georgia’s Kvemo Kartli region, some 93 kilometers southwest of the nation’s capital, Tbilisi, lies the hamlet and archaeological site of Dmanisi. It was found the 1.8 millionyear-old hominid site. When a series of skulls from the genus Homo with various physical characteristics were discovered at Dmanisi in the early 2010s, it was assumed that many distinct species in the genus belonged to a single lineage. The fifth skull found at Dmanisi is referred to as Skull 5, also known as “D4500.”
Before the 1980s, researchers believed that hominins remained in Africa for the entirety of the Early Pleistocene (up to around 0.8 million years ago), leaving the continent only during a period known as Out of Africa I. Africa consequently received an excessive amount of archaeological interest.
The Dmanisi archeological site, on the other hand, is the oldest hominin site discovered outside of Africa. Artifact analysis showed that certain hominins, presumably Homo erectus georgicus, left Africa as early as 1.85 million years ago. The ages of the five skulls are similar.
Despite the fact that the majority of experts think the Skull 5 is a typical Homo erectus, the ancestors of modern humans also lived in Africa at the same time. While some have asserted that it is Australopithecus sediba, assumed to be the ancestor of the genus Homo, which includes modern humans, and thought to have lived around 1.9 million years ago in what is now South Africa. Despite the many new alternatives that many scientists have proposed, we still lack the real face of our